Carnap as Phenomenologist?

Ashgate PublishingのHPを見ていると、近々以下のような本が出版されることを知る。

  • Guillermo E. Rosado Haddock  The Young Carnap’s Unknown Master: Husserl’s Influence on Der Raum and Der logische Aufbau der Welt, Ashgate Publishing, due in March 2008

Examining the scholarly interest of the last two decades in the origins of logical empiricism, and especially the roots of Rudolf Carnap’s Der logische Aufbau der Welt (The Logical Structure of the World), Rosado Haddock challenges the received view, according to which that book should be inserted in the empiricist tradition.

In The Young Carnap's Unknown Master Rosado Haddock, builds on the interpretations of Aufbau propounded by Verena Mayer and of Carnap's earlier thesis Der Raum propounded by Sahotra Sarkar and offers instead the most detailed and complete argument on behalf of an Husserlian interpretation of both of these early works of Carnap, as well as offering a refutation of the rival Machian, Kantian, Neo-Kantian, and other more eclectic interpretations of the influences on the work of the young Carnap.

The book concludes with an assessment of Carnap’s critique of the 'analytic-synthetic' distinction and a criticism of the direction that analytic philosophy has taken in following the footsteps of Carnap's friend, colleague and rival W.V. Quine.


Carnap's first Husserlian book;
On Der Logische Aufbau der Welt;
Carnap and Husserl on intersubjectivity;
Carnap, Husserl and analytic philosophy;


調べてみると、Carnapの博士論文“Der Raum”とAufbauは、前者についてはNeo-Kantianism、後者についてはRussellの影響が大きいと考えられているようである*1。そしてAufbauはCarnapの初期のmasterpieceであり、一つのphilosophical programmeを打ち出した大作なため、AufbauはRussellも棹差すBritish Empiricismの流れの中に位置づけられるものと考えられているようである。
恐らくCarnapやLogical Empiricismの専門家でなければ、Carnapと彼の初期の代表作AufbauはEmpiricismの系統に属すると解されているだろう。
しかしAufbauをEmpiricismの流れの中に位置づける解釈に対し、Kant and Neo-Kantianの影響を重要視する立場も近年出てきているようである。例えば

  • Alan W. Richardson  Carnap's Construction of the World: The Aufbau and the Emergence of Logical Empiricism, Cambridge University Press, 1997


さて、この項目の最初に上げたAshgateから近刊のHaddockさんによるThe Young Carnap’s Unknown Master: Husserl’s Influence on Der Raum and Der logische Aufbau der Weltでは、以上のAufbau理解に対し、反旗を翻しておられるようである。つまり、CarnapのAufbauはEmpiricismでもNeo-Kantianismでもなく、phenomenologicalな著作なのだ、というのである。


  • Jean-Michel Roy  “Carnap's Husserlian Reading of the Aufbau”, in Steve Awodey and Carsten Klein ed., Carnap Brought Home: The View from Jena, Open Court Publishing, Full Circle: Publications of the Archive of Scientific Philosophy, vol. 2, 2004


The distortion in the understanding of the origins of contemporary philosophy induced by its current division into continental and analytic traditions is such that many would be surprised to learn that Carnap not only studied Husserl's major works attentively, but also deeply appreciated them at an early stage of his thinking.


In sharp opposition to this image [of Carnap's anti-phenomenological stance], the little-known importance of Husserl for Carnap's doctoral analysis of space was brought to light a few years ago by Michael Friedman's paper “Carnap and Weyl on the Foundations of Geometry and relativity theory.” However, to the best of my knowledge, no real attention*3 has been paid so far to the fact that in his later Aufbau, Carnap also significantly refers to Husserl's Logische Untersuchungen (1900-1901) as well to the first volume of Ideen zu einer reinen Phanomenologie und Phanomenologischen Philosophie (1913), to the point that he himself suggestes a Husserlian interpretation of the constructional system offered in his own book. Indeed, in §64, Carnap explicitly indicates that the elementary lived experiences (Elementarerlebnisse) which constitute the basic elements of this system are similar to the pure lived experiences (reinen Erlebnisse) disclosed by Husserl's transcendental reduction, and which constitute the specific domain of the phenomenological science that this reduction is intended to make possible:

At the beginning of the system, the experiences must simply be taken as they occur. We shall not claim reality or nonreality in connection with these experiences; rather, these claims will be ‘bracketed,’ i.e. we will exercise the phenomenological ‘withholding of judgment,’ epoche, in Husserl's sense. (Husserl 1913, §§32-33)

It is apparently legitimate, therefore, to see the Aufbau as offering the outline of a constructional system of a transcendental kind, in Husserl's sense of the transcendental; in other words, as offering a logical construction of scientific natural reality of the basis of the specific domain of being that Husserl calls the region of pure lived experience, and sees as constituting such reality.

‘It is apparently legitimate, therefore, to see the Aufbau as offering the outline of a constructional system of a transcendental kind, in Husserl's sense of the transcendental’とはすごいですね。





*1:蟹池陽一、「ウィーン学団とカルナップ」、飯田隆編、『哲学の歴史 第11巻 論理・数学・言語 【20世紀】』、中央公論新社、2007年、「3.1 「科学の論理」プログラム以前 フレーゲラッセルの圧倒的な影響」、453-57ページ参照。

*2:Roy, pp. 41-42.

*3:However, cf. Mayer 1992 and English 1996 for relevant considerations.